This version dated August 5, 1997
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- 1. Library
- 2. Work
- 3. Product
- 3.1 University/Site
Server Reference Product
- 3.2 University/AMICO Server
- 3.3 University
Selected Reference Product
- 4. Value-added
- 5. Tools
- 5.1 Analysis
- 5.2 Presentation
- 5.3 Discourse
- 6. Market
- 7. License
- 7.1. Licensee
- 7.2 Licensed
- 7.3 Licensed Uses
- 7.4 Terms
and Conditions of Use
- 8. Fees
- 9. Distributor
- 9.1 Distributors
to the University Market
- 9.2 Distributors
to the K-12 Market
The works contributed by AMICO members will be
enhanced by the mere fact of being included with other works from other
institutions, but their value to licensees will be even more greatly
- 1. LIBRARY
- The LIBRARY consists of all the digital works licensed
to AMICO by its members.
- 2. WORK
A WORK is a unit of multimedia documentation
contributed to the AMICO LIBRARY.
The simplest WORK is the representation of
a single work of art. These might range from works with "minimal
documentation" (a base level that will be established by AMICO participants
but will presumably always include one image and complete "tombstone"
data) to works incorporating large quantities of structured and
unstructured text, sound, and motion image.
In the future, The AMICO Library might include
more complex WORKS, such as a curriculum packet, an interview, a
virtual exhibits or a digital edition of a publication such as a
catalogue raissonee. Members of AMICO would need to set base standards
for each genre as well as determine the "shares" each member should
receive for each kind of contribution to the Library.
- 3. PRODUCT
AMICO will make its LIBRARY of WORKS and subsets
of that Library available as a series of separate products. A PRODUCT
is defined as:
- specified works
- specified value added content/tools
- a specified distributor, which may also
have associated services
Some of these products will incorporate the
full contents of the Library and be distinguished by the way they
are delivered or the extent of value-added tools and indexes which
accompany them. Other products will only cover parts of the library,
be directed towards specific niche markets, or include distinctive
modes of delivery and service.
University/ Site Server Reference Product
- The simplest of the AMICO products, and the one which
will no doubt be offered first, is based on the MESL model. It consists
of the entire Library, delivered in a standard but raw form, on fixed
media for local mounting on a University network, without any indexes
or tools. This product has an annual update schedule (is refreshed
only when the license is renewed) and is accompanied by no services.
It is the most complete and cheapest way to use AMICO, but we know
from experience that only a relatively small number of the world's
largest universities are prepared to absorb the costs to themselves
of licensing this product.
- 3.2. University/AMICO
Server Reference Product
- Very shortly, if not at start up, AMICO will need
to develop a product that is more appealing to smaller universities
and colleges. The more important feature of this product will be the
value-added search system and indexes that are delivered with it and
(probably) a component that permits the licensee of the product to
access the AMICO server and "order" content for delivery to the university.
The costs of providing these added services make this product significantly
more expensive for AMICO to offer but enhance its value to the licensee.
University Selected Reference Products
- Other product variants might be defined for the university
market by the amount or type of content which is licensed (the product
could incorporate the entire Library, or it might have a fixed number
of works or number of pre-defined sub-sets from the Library), or the
type and quantity of support in the form of access to the AMICO server
which are contracted.
These four mechanisms of adding value will be combined
in different AMICO products based on the needs of the market. It is
hoped that the first of these VALUE-ADDED processes will improve all
AMICO works, for the licensees and the museum members themselves. Generally
products with greater levels of VALUE-ADDED will have higher fee structures.
TOOLS envisioned as part of AMICO products, or
offered in the package of services provided by AMICO distributors, fall
into three general categories:
- uniform quality control and adherence to
- integrated indexes, thesauri, and cross references
- editorial selection as part of coherent product
- tools to display, search, analyze, manipulate,
or link works
A MARKET is a segment of the population or niche of
institutions which is interested in the same or similar products. Higher
education buyers are not the only educational market we want to reach,
but once we move away from the higher education market, the kinds of
products will need to be increasingly structured around specific markets.
High schools and elementary schools have different needs as do school
districts and individual private schools. Each will need to have packages
of content, tools, and delivery methods made for it based on market
research that we have not yet done. Some of the product structures will
depend on the nature of the distributor.
A LICENSE to a product conveys rights to specific
users for specific uses. In addition, it establishes the terms which
the institutional licensee must satisfy in order to maintain the license,
most importantly in our case, those relating to security and monitoring.
- 5.1. Analysis tools
- These tools assist users in exploiting The AMICO Library. They could include image analysis tools specifically designed
to assist conservators using multiple images of different wave lengths
of light, for example. They could include bibliographic analysis
tools specifically designed to enable scholars to document the publication
history of works. Analystic toolsets are likely to be created by
AMICO licensed users, and offered back to AMICO as part of the relationship
AMICO hopes to build with its educational user community.
- The most important tools in this category are likely
to be those associated with searching The AMICO Library and displaying
the results of such searches. In addition to specially enabled query
mechanisms, these tools might include geographical display of result
sets (including possibly display in historical maps), timeline display
of results (histographic and iconic), and relative size displays.
In addition, presentation tools include those requirewd to playback
audio files, audio-video files, multimedia presentations and interactive
experiences. Finally an array of 3-dimensional,. Virtual reality,
and other tools could be included in this category. Many of these
tools will be developed by museums themselves, distributors to the
licensees, and by the licensees.
- One of the interests of AMICO is to enable dialog
with users, whether they be scholars or students. Tools which support
such dialog, annotation, live discussion and debate, fall into thicategory.
Some of these tools will need to be provided by AMICO in order to
ensure consistent input and interfaces for museum staff to engage
in the dialogues and to incorporate input from users (when they
find that input useful) into their own records.
Even though we discussed the principles of fee structures
in our agreements on "licenses", it is important to recognize that it
is the product plus the license that has a fee associated with it, not
the licenses per se or the products alone. The same license and product
could be offered to different markets at different fees. For example,
all licensed products will be offered to AMICO members without charge.
A product may be offered with several different licenses at different
prices, depending on what rights the license gives the licensee. Indeed,
different distributors could offer the same product and license at different
prices, presumably feeling they provided different levels of support.
Determining price points requires market analysis with quite concrete
descriptions of products, licenses and targeted potential licensees.
- 7.1. Licensee
- AMICO licenses are offered to institutions with
educational programs, not to the individuals taking part in those
programs. The licensee must be in a position to oversee the use
of the product and to enforce the terms and conditions of use.
- Licensed users are defined by specific markets.
Thus in the university license we excluded alumni, university tenants
not affiliated with its educational programs, families of faculty
and staff, etc. Specific licenses (attached to the same or different
products) might be offered to these groups of users.
- 7.3. Licensed uses
- Licensed uses are explicitly defined in each license,
along with concrete examples of uses which are not allowed. Licensed
uses go beyond the rights allowed under fair use. Licensed uses
are appropriate to the particular context in which the licensee
will make the product available to licensed users. Licensed uses
are likely to be configured so as to be appropriate (in our view)
to the educational level and educational purposes of the licensees.
For example, we have imagined a license for higher education that
includes quite a few permissions that we would not wish to convey
to younger students, such as the right to keep portfolios with licensed
works in them beyond the term of the license. We can imagine being
asked to give school districts rights to broadcast content in various
ways through communications channels to which their schools have
Terms and conditions of use
- Terms and conditions of use for administering the
licensed product are necessarily related to the abilities of the
licensees. In the case of the university license, the MESL experience
left museum participants comfortable with the high level of existing
security within university networks that already license software
and the high level of control which can be exercised by a sanction
system that expels or fires offenders. As a consequence we drafted
a license agreement that relies largely on social mechanisms for
protection of the intellectual property. In other environments,
including quite possibly smaller colleges and art schools, we may
need to go beyond the social mechanisms of control and introduce
more technological means. As we discussed briefly at the March 20
meeting, when such technical means are introduced they dramatically
limit the license permissions. Technological means of control only
work within closed systems; if copying license works outside of
those types of systems does not render them unusable, it will leave
them (technologically) non-secured. Drafting terms and conditions
that can be met by licensees and which afford the kinds of protections,
reporting, and indemnity relationships that both parties require
involves a lot of exploration with different potential licensees
that has not yet occurred outside of higher education. AMICO will
need to draft such licenses as new products are developed, as part
of the product development cycle.
A DISTRIBUTOR is a deliverer of information,
in AMICO's case a provider to the educational community, such as a
database vendor, information broker, or cable television operator.
It would be uneconomical for AMICO to try to reach all markets by
itself. Existing organizations are able to distribute content to a
variety of the educational markets we wish to reach better than any
new organization would be. AMICO should develop relationships with
these organizations and capitalize on their expertise.
The fundamental problem here is similar to that
facing a museum which wishes to distribute an exhibition catalog or
video. The museum bookstore can sell some during the exhibition. Commercial
book distributors, if they are willing to handle the title, are a
further means of distribution. If the product is a video, negotiations
with national video rental chains and television stations would become
necessary to reach a broader audience.
AMICO itself could provide the simple, full
reference product to universities capable of mounting it. An organization
that holds the master/archival copies of the Library could provide
a copy to each licensee in a relatively straightforward "write-to-fixed
medium and mail" operation. Beyond that raw product, many other distributors
have advantages in reaching specific audiences.
From AMICO's perspective, the existence of other
distributors is tremendously beneficial. They can deliver the AMICO
product to more potential licensees and cheaper than a purpose built
AMICO run entity could. They can also add different amounts of value
in their search tools and meta-indexes which helps differentiate the
market and could contribute value back to AMICO members.
Actual negotiations with other distributors to provide
the AMICO products to their markets will doubtless be very complex,
but a commitment to non-exclusive agreements for distribution is an
important part of the model we are proposing.
Distributors To The University Market
The Research Libraries Group and OCLC already
have as members virtually every North American university to whom
we would want to sell a license, as well as many foreign ones.
They have the capability to mount a catalog and deliver subsets
of data to their members, and indeed they are in the business
of doing precisely this. Both would benefit from being distributors
by being able to provide more to their members, as well as from
the fee AMICO would pay for their distribution services. Needless
to say, a variety of commercial entities also distribute data
to the university market and might be interested in assuming a
role in AMICO product delivery.
Distributors To The K-12 Market
- SchoolNet in Canada and numerous statewide
school networks in the US would be likely candidates for distribution
of AMICO products to the K-12 markets. Many cable networks and publishers
are also building distribution capabilities to reach these markets.
Copyright Archives & Museum Informatics, the
Art Museum Network and the Association of Art Museum Directors
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