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TIIAP Grant Proposal

Model for Delivery of Educational Resources State-wide through a State Library Agency


Over the past few years, tremendous strides have been made in providing network connectivity to schools and public libraries throughout the United States. Nevertheless, the flow of quality educational content to through these channels has not grown in proportion to the expanded bandwidth. Indeed, with the exception of significant bodies of American History resources being made publicly available by the Library of Congress, few libraries of cultural resources can be accessed over the web. Privileged institutions may be able to purchase commercially published resources in the future, but widespread public access to cultural heritage requires new models for content creation and distribution, supported by new models of licensing and financing.

In the fall of 1997, after six months of intensive planning, twenty-three major North American art museums founded the Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) [see Appendix A for members]. AMICO has developed strategies to overcome quite a few of the social, economic, and technical barriers in its effort to develop a model that can make cultural resources available for educational uses, including:

    - a strategy for sharing the cost of creating large bodies of high quality resources
    - a framework for licensing that encourages educational use while preventing commercial misuse
    - a distribution system that can provide access to huge digital libraries to the public and students, not only in the library or in the school, but from their homes
    - a service environment which supports highly interactive use of resources, which not only enable searching databases to select relevant materials, but also provide tools for students to work with each other, teachers to develop curricula, and members of the public to interact with experts
    - an economically self-sufficient system for content creation, acquisition and delivery

In this project, AMICO aims to create models for delivery of educational resources across a state to schools and public libraries using services and infrastructures common to most State Library Agencies.

AMICO members share the costs of creating a very large, rich, and authoritative resource of multimedia documentation of art. Each member of AMICO contributes digital documentation of 500 new works each year and adding to the documentation of works it provided previously. This makes the cost affordable to each museum yet rapidly creates a sizeable library that will grow even richer over time. While each member is dedicated to serving educational purposes, none could afford to create a large library from its own collections or entirely with its own resources. New members are being invited to join in 1998, and in each year thereafter. Target membership ceilings allow for gradual expansion of the number of museums participating in AMICO. The AMICO Board has set a goal of a library of 250,000 works within five years, growing through the addition of new works both by new and existing members. [see Appendix B for growth projections].

AMICO members are committed to providing educational access to the Library under license. Promoting educational access to art is a major aspect of each members' mission and licensing is a framework under which museums are comfortable making very high resolution images and even in-house scholarship about their collections available for non-commercial, educational use (as demonstrated by the recently concluded Museum Educational Site Licensing Project in which many AMICO institutions and individuals participated). While AMICO will provide The AMICO Library to higher education institutions (following the MESL model) beginning in the 1998-99 academic year, AMICO members are keenly aware that higher education represents only a small proportion of the museum audience and are committed to providing The AMICO Library to K-12 institutions and public libraries. In this project, AMICO will work with educators, librarians and teachers from a range of circumstances in Arizona to develop licenses that enable the kinds of educational uses which will enrich educational experiences while protecting the intellectual property thus developed from commercial misuse.

AMICO has decided to use existing network services to deliver its resources rather than creating redundant special purpose delivery facilities. Within days of the formation of AMICO, staff met with representatives of major information service providers to the university community and began discussions which will now lead to availability of The AMICO Library for higher education as early as the fall of 1998 (less than a year after the creation of the Consortium). However, the network delivery and services environment for schools, and for small and disadvantaged library systems, is much more complicated. There is no national distributor of content to schools, and few states have any educational network services designed specifically to reach K-12 institutions. However, by working with the Arizona Department of Libraries, Archives and Public Records, a leading state library agency, we can develop mechanisms for the delivery of The AMICO Library to all kinds of educational institutions - elementary and secondary institutions and public libraries (as well as higher education and even museums) within a single state. AMICO hopes to provide models for other states to use The AMICO Library and for other non-profit digital cultural resource providers to distribute digital libraries at a state level. Working with users, we will create new technical and economic mechanisms that will enable non-commercial resources to be made widely available at low cost.

AMICO members believe that existing service providers know their target audiences, but need encouragement to work closely with them and AMICO to craft the software that will best serve The AMICO Library. Different communities of educational users - graduate students, undergraduates, secondary students, elementary students and life-long learners - have different needs when it comes to utilizing a large library of cultural resources. Higher education users need sophisticated searching facilities and the ability to use the contents they find in new creative products to express themselves and analyze previous work. School teachers need help sifting through large volumes of data and can benefit by sharing exemplary curricular packages developed with their colleagues elsewhere. Members of the public engaged in life-long learning need more general access points, ways to ˝collect" works of art for future reference, and means to interact with each other and museum educators. In this project, AMICO will work with the Arizona DLAPR to develop model specifications, and model delivery systems, for two important constituencies: K-12 teachers and learners, and the general public.

AMICO is constructing and testing a new economic model for distribution of online cultural resources. Not only are AMICO members taking the expense and responsibility of creating a digital resource on themselves, they have agreed to share the costs of disseminating The AMICO Library with the licensed user groups. Member museums are each paying annual dues equal in dollars to the annual charges being made to universities for licensing the library even though universities are, on average, much larger than the museums. Specific fees for public library licenses and K-12 licenses have yet to be determined, but will also reflect the principles of shared costs and of not-for-profit operations. [see Appendix C for fees].

In this project, the AMICO members will collaborate with the State Libraries of Arizona to define means for administering licensing fees and licensed use that will enable schools and public libraries. In the aftermath of the Conference on Fair Use, it is essential to demonstrate how publishers and consumers can arrive at predictable, workable licenses. In this model, each contributes to the funding of resource construction and dissemination. Such models for fostering existing and creating new distribution channels for cultural content, are essential to ensuring that a large body of cultural content will be available to the public in the next few years.


Shared cultural knowledge is the foundation of civil society. The desirability of digitizing large existing collections of cultural resources, such as are found in the collections of museums, and making access to them available to universities, schools and the general public has been a matter of faith since the formation of the Internet, and especially since the advent of the World Wide Web. Many plans for connecting institutions to the networks have gone ahead, and been fueled, by the expectation of exploiting such rich resources. But the reality is that very few, relatively small, bodies of cultural materials suitable for learning are available in the free WWW environment. The economics of capturing, indexing, publishing and servicing large collections of cultural materials are almost prohibitive and collective undertakings have been hampered by the absence of tested non-profit economic and social models for creating and distributing such resources. New models are required to create rich digital cultural resources, deliver them in an equitable (widespread) and useful way, and finance non-profit systems of distribution.

The AMICO consortium itself represents a new social and economic model for creating digital resources and is consciously exploring new models for content delivery. For the first time, art museums have come together to create a shared educational resource. This model was built on six months of detailed planning meetings whose results have been widely published. The AMICO model has already served as the basis for other museum consortia and which can and will be extended to art museums in, and beyond, the United States, and to historical museums, archives, botanical gardens, zoological parks, science centers and the like.

AMICO will establish a basis for non-profit licensing of educational resources. The AMICO consortium is developing the first non-profit licensed educational resources from museums. Providing licenses for commercial and educational uses of museum data and images has been a part of museum practice for decades, but with the advent of the networks, museums realized that they needed to streamline licensing to enable the desired growth in use of museum resources. During 1998, the AMICO consortium drafted licenses with members of the museum and university communities, placing draft licenses online for public discussion and responding to suggestions made by potential licensees. In 1999 the consortium will take this collaborative and consultative process forward to the public library and K-12 communities and will work with its partners in Arizona to craft balanced licenses reflecting their needs.

AMICO will deliver cultural resources to institutions of all sizes and types. Throughout the United States, some institutions participate in many, and others in no, information service delivery networks. Some have substantial financial resources, and others have very little. But all educational institutions, in all 50 states, are served by their respective State Library Agency. The implications of developing models that will permit these agencies to be the primary service providers for cultural resources in their states are to strengthen the role of public institutions in not-for-profit educational ventures. Arizona is an ideal state in which to test this model as it is both predominantly urban (like the country as a whole) and comprised of very rural and remote communities. Arizona provides opportunities to test distribution to communities of elderly, of Native Americans, of Spanish speakers, and other important, under served, minorities. (see Appendix D for Project Plan)

AMICO will create a self-sustaining economic system for educational use of cultural documentation. Creating common multimedia databases of art resources and making them available to the public is estimated by AMICO to cost over 25 million dollars in the next decade. Neither governmental nor philanthropic funding at this scale is likely to be available for this purpose though the end may be a worthy one. But the AMICO model of partnership between the museums, as holders of cultural resources, and schools and libraries which serve the audiences for them, can build such digital libraries quickly, make them widely available, and ensure through the collaboration that they serve the educational purposes for which they are constructed.


Progress to Date

The AMICO project uses existing data, images, scanning capabilities in museums. Museum registrars have documentation of their collections. Museum curators have written scholarly works interpreting them. Museum educators have developed curricular packages to help teachers lead classes through the museum and in study of its treasures, and museum directors have taped sound recorded tours for audio-guides rented by tourists. In its first six months, AMICO has brought information about more than 20,000 works together in a new package that will grow annually [See Appendix E for Library profile]. AMICO has defined a shared Technical Specification that enables the pooling of multi-institutional resources which builds on the standards of the Consortium for Computer Interchange of Museum Information (CIMI), and the work of the Visual Resources Association (VRA), Categories for Description of Works of Art (CDWA), and the Dublin Core metadata initiative.

The AMICO project uses existing information services and delivery infrastructures. While academic networks, bibliographic utilities, cultural services offered by governmental agencies, and state library networks each already serve different types of online data to part of the AMICO client community, AMICO is taking the rare approach of offering each of these players the opportunity to deliver The AMICO Library product to the constituency it knows best. Response has been positive: in the first six months, AMICO has concluded a contract with the Research Libraries Group (a major supplier to the university market), entered into negotiations with a regional network, a state university system, and a national cultural network in Canada. This project extends the distribution model by using an existing State library network to reach communities not served by these other systems.

The AMICO project has moved ahead, despite the currently confused legal climate. While many possible uses of educational resources are protected in the United States by the Fair Use defense against the Copyright law violations, many other uses that academics and teachers would like to make of a rich cultural resource cannot be justified in this way. In the past decade, educators have had substantial experience with licensing software and other intellectual property to achieve what they need to accomplish. But many of these licenses have been perceived as unbalanced. In the AMICO project we have had experience bringing users and holders of copyright together to devise license agreements that enable uses which go beyond the "Fair Use" defense, but are perceived by both parties to be balanced [See Appendix F for major terms of license to universities]

In addition:

    - AMICO members are committed. AMICO was formed (entirely at its members expense) after only six months in planning because the museums participating in the effort were so excited that they sent their staff representatives (often several from one institution) to four meetings of several days duration each to make it happen.
    - AMICO members have succeeded in working together. In the first six months of operation, AMICO members have agreed on data standards, contributed almost 20,000 works of art to the library, negotiated for distribution of the Library to higher education in 1998/99, and accepted applications from twenty leading universities to conduct research on the initial Library to improve it for public release in the fall of 1999.
    - AMICO members involve users. They have drafted already university and museum licenses with members of the appropriate communities. During this project, they will work with librarians and educators to draft the necessary public library and school use licenses.
    - AMICO members have the credibility to obtain commitment from service providers to invest in future delivery. They have already entered into contract with the Research Libraries Group to deliver the Library to users in the higher education community and to AMICO members themselves for their educational programs. During this project, they will work with a state library agency to deliver content to the public and to schools in useful ways.
    - AMICO members have a clear sense of the different ways in which their information should be shared. They have developed and published specifications for Public Web Sites which can provide searchable label data and thumbnail images of the whole library to anyone. They have agreed to specifications for delivery of The AMICO Library under license to university users by RLG in 1998 and beyond. During the TIIAP project, AMICO members will explore other specifications which support lifelong learning and development of curricular materials as well as methods by which individual licensees may work together with each other, and interact with museum staff, to understand, interpret and augment The AMICO Library.

The Arizona Department of Library, Archives and Public Records (DLAPR) has been an important player in providing an automated network and infrastructure for the public and tribal libraries in Arizona, including Aznet, an interlibrary loan and reference network, which links most of the public, tribal, academic and special libraries in the state. . In 1998 it will be promoting an intensive demonstration model of electronic access for public libraries in Apache County, a remote and underserved area of the state. With LSCA funds it has encouraged the development of public access to automated systems at the local level. In the near future all public and tribal libraries in the state will have Internet access. DLAPR also participates in the governance of AzTeC, Arizona's freenet, as well as having an involvement with numerous other state agencies and associations representing education, library, museum and automation interests. In the project, fifty individual sites, with many professional employees each, will be exposed to the opportunities of accessing rich cultural resources and will be given opportunities to work together with others in the community on making them widely available.

Progress anticipated under the TIIAP Project

Model Licenses. During the TIIAP project, licenses will be drafted to allow educational uses of The AMICO Library in K-12 institutions and in public library settings and by public library patrons and school children and teachers at home. Such mutually agreed frameworks for licenses will be a model for other non-profit creators of cultural resources, and will be published widely.

Model Specifications. During the TIIAP project, the Arizona DLAPR will design and implement the software to serve this encyclopedic collection of cultural multimedia documentation to public library and school populations based on requirements defined by project participants. The process will parallel the AMICO process to draft distributor specifications and public web site specifications (completed in 1998 with the museum and university communities) and will be published as models for others.

Model Delivery Services. During the TIIAP project period, the Arizona DLAPR will develop distribution facilities and service infrastructures to deliver The AMICO Library and similar licensed resources to populations within the state. The Library will be provided to over 25 public libraries and over 25 schools as the first step in achieving the goal AMICO set itself for its first five years: to reach 10% of the public libraries and schools in the United States. Detailed documentation of the means by which each licensee was provided access, the issues uncovered in the process and the kinds of assistance required, will serve as the basis for guidelines for providing access to public libraries and schools. These will be made available to other state agencies for future licensing similar bodies of cultural materials.

Models for Evaluation of User Interaction. During the TIIAP project, evaluation of the initial dissemination will permit us to assess how public library patrons can best access such large encyclopedic collections both at the library and from home using their library issued identification. It will also provide a laboratory in which to study how school children and teachers can use the library both within the formal curriculum and at home. The TIIAP funding will support testing and evaluation of model mechanisms to reach the broad public with resources which might otherwise not be available to them. Results of such evaluations will be published. [see Appendix K for details of the project schedule, and how the elements interact ]


AMICO members are committed to a collaborative process involving users in the definition of terms and conditions of access to The AMICO Library, in the development of specifications for its delivery, and in the evolution of mechanisms to communicate between users and museum personnel around the uses being made of the Library. In its first year, AMICO engaged the university community in meetings throughout the U.S. and by disseminating information for comment on the WWW. Within the TIIAP project, the AMICO community will be expanded to include public librarians and public library patrons as well as school teachers, students and administrators. In the initial months of the project, a campaign of State-wide promotion of the concept of electronic resources provided to schools and libraries will be used as a basis for attracting 500 or more librarians and educators to meetings throughout the State at which the potential of such resources, including but not limited to The AMICO Library, are discussed and methods for accessing them, and using the in classroom and lifelong learning, are explored.

It is anticipated that the Arizona Learning Technology Task Force, in conjunction with the Arizona Department of Education, will become a key collaborator with DLAPR. These agencies will seek to include the diverse array of Arizona's K-12 schools in the AMICO project. For both libraries and schools the aim will be to develop working models for licenses, service agreements, specifications, training approaches, user studies and evaluation results. Museums within Arizona will be encouraged to join AMICO. Already, for example, the Center of Creative Photography at the University of Arizona (an AMICO member) works closely with all third grade teachers at the Amphitheater School District. Establishing a dialogue with Arizona's many art and Native American museums will enable the libraries and education departments of such museums as the Phoenix Art Museum, the Tucson Museum of Art, the Scottsdale Center for the Arts, the Sun Cities Art Museum, the Mesa Southwest Museum, the Heard Museum, the Arizona State Museum, and the other art museums located on the campuses of Arizona's three universities to complete the circle of content creation, delivery and educational evaluation. The Heard Museum is currently involved in digitalization of Native American photographs, and this and other museums will be encouraged to become involved in AMICO activities.

Staff for the AMICO project will also cooperate with various agencies and organizations which have similar goals, such as the Arizona Department of Education, the Arizona Commission on the Arts, the Arizona Library Association, the Arizona Education Association, State Advisory Council on Libraries, the Arizona Museum Association, the Arizona Educational Media Association, the Arizona Telecommunications and Information Council, the Arizona Distance Learning Association, and the Center for Collaborative Research on Learning Technologies at Arizona State University.


Documentation and dissemination of information about the AMICO model is a major goal of AMICO. Since the first AMICO planning meetings in March 1997, AMICO has maintained public site on the World Wide web ( with copies of all documents drafted and prepared by AMICO members and a discussion list for public comment on issues raised by AMICO documents. AMICO members have presented AMICO's plans at numerous professional conferences and will, during the TIIAP grant cycle, expand their scope to reach public library and elementary and secondary education conferences in addition to the university, museum and network conferences at which they currently speak (see Appendix G for public presentations).

Several products of the project will be published and distributed to state agencies, school and public library professionals, educational associations and museums. These include model licenses, model user specification for interaction with digital cultural libraries, model delivery and service frameworks and the evaluation studies conducted by the project.

Evaluation has also played a major part in AMICO planning from the outset. The TIIAP project includes an evaluation agenda with both internal and external evaluation. External evaluation, using university based researchers, will be conducted for the TIIAP project phase in the same way as the university project phase. In 1998-99, before making its library available for general licensing, AMICO invited universities to participate in formal research studies using a preliminary version of The AMICO Library. A Call-for-Participation and detailed research agenda was issued and twenty universities (of over 100 institutions figuring in proposals received) were accepted as research partners to explore a wide range of evaluation issues surrounding who uses the library and how (Appendix H for University Testbed Participants). During the TIIAP project, these universities will be invited to extend their users studies to encompass the institutions licensing the library in Arizona and additional university research teams from Arizona and elsewhere will be invited to propose studies, following the same model of calls-for-proposals based on stated research objectives. Internal evaluation, will use staff of AMICO member museums education departments experienced in evaluation of educational programs, members of the staff of the State Library of Arizona, and representatives of licensed users as reviewers. They will engage in both a pre-project baseline assessment to establish their expectations, and a post-project review to evaluate the impact of the project and of the resources delivered under it [see Appendix I for Evaluation]

Appendix A.    AMICO Membership, Board and Current Management


Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
Asia Society Gallery, New York, NY
Center for Creative Photography, Tucson, AZ
Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH
Davis Museum and Cultural Center, Wellesley, MA
Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA
George Eastman House, Rochester, NY
J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN
Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego, CA
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montréal, Quebec
Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, Montréal, Québec
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, CA
San Jose Museum of Art, San Jose, CA
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis MN

Membership in AMICO is open to institutions with collections of art.

Executive Committee, AMICO Board, 1998

Harry S. Parker III, Chairman, Director, Fine Art Museums of San Francisco
Maxwell Anderson, Director, Art Gallery of Ontario (Chair, Fundraising Committee)
Robert Bergman, Director, Cleveland Museum of Art (Chair, Membership Committee)
Hugh Davies, Director, San Diego Museum of Contemporary Art
Vishaka Desai, Director, Asia Society Gallery
Malcolm Rogers, Director, Museum of Fine Art Boston
Shirley Thomson, Exec. Director, Canada Council

Current Management

AMICO is managed under contract by Archives & Museum Informatics, Pittsburgh PA which is currently establishing its staffing requirements and policies and will assist in recruiting the staff identified in this proposal, beginning in July of 1998.

Appendix B.   Library, Membership, and Licensed Use Growth projections

Number of Members
Number of University Contributors
Number of Foreign Libraries
Number of added Works
Cumulative Number of Works
Number of MB
  contributing @ min. 500 wks contributing @ min. 500 wks contributing @ min.10,000 wks min. totals    
1998/99 23 1   23,000   115,000
1999/00 35 4 1 29,500 52,500 262,500
2000/01 50 8 1 39,000 91,500 457,500
2001/02 75 16 2 65,500 157,000 785,000
2002/03 100 32 2 86,000 243,000 1,215,000

Appendix C.    Member fees and License fees

In 1998 AMICO members paid membership fees to AMICO ranging from $2,500 to $5,000 per year, based on size of their budgets. Future year dues are likely to remain the same for at least the project period.

University licensees pay license fees to AMICO based on population of the university community. In the 1998 ˝ University Testbed" project, these range from $2500 to $5,000 in tiers based on size. After 1999, when the Library becomes publicly available, they are likely to be calculated on the basis of $0.25 per student or faculty member per year. Establishing equitable and collaboratively agreed fee structures is one of the goals of the University Testbed project.

Schools will pay a license fees to AMICO based on number of students. The fees for 1999, when the Library becomes publicly available have yet to be set but for the Arizona TIIAP project it is calculated at $0.10 per student per year with a minimum fee of $100 per school.

Public libraries will pay a license fee to AMICO based on the number of card holders. The fees for 1999, when the Library becomes publicly available, have yet to be set but for the Arizona TIIAP project will be $0.01 per public library card holder with a minimum of $100 per library.

Appendix D.    Arizona State Department of Library, Archives and Public Records Project Plans

Arizona is an excellent state in which to test The AMICO Library's access and use by K-12 students and the broader public through public libraries. Arizona bears widely divergent demographic trends as a prime example of a booming sunbelt state. It has a large and growing Hispanic population, and one of the largest number of Native American inhabitants in the United States. It also is a significant focus of retirees and retirement communities, and due to the growth of high tech employment, an exploding K-12 student population in several areas. The contrasts in geographic density are also noteworthy. The population of Arizona is primarily urban, most people live in the urban areas of Maricopa and Pima Counties, yet it also has a vast rural hinterland with many remote, isolated communities. In 1997 Arizona's population increased by 98,000 people. It is one of fastest growing states in population.

Arizona also has an emerging electronic information infrastructure which can be utilized for the AMICO project. The Arizona Department of Library, Archives and Public Records (DLAPR) has successfully developed an interlibrary loan and electronic reference system, known as AzNet, which is utilized by many of the state's public, community college, university and special libraries, including those of the Phoenix Art Museum and the Heard Museum. In 1997, with federal LSCA funds, DLAPR invested $1,000,000 for hardware, software and training for the state's public and tribal libraries to strengthen their ability to provide electronic information. Soon every public library in Arizona will have the capacity for Internet access. Previously, it has assisted many county libraries with their local automation development. In 1998 it will be promoting an intensive demonstration model of electronic access for public libraries in Apache County, a remote and underserved area of the state. DLAPR assisted in the development of AzTeC, the Arizona freenet, located at Arizona State University. The Library Extension Division Director serves on its governing board. DLAPR is also coordinating the education rate for universal service discounts for public, tribal and museum libraries. DLAPR is committed to multitype institutional collaboration across all types of educational and cultural institutions in Arizona.

Arizona is served by fifteen county public library systems. These systems and their many branches and affiliates, along with the urban library systems of Maricopa County - Phoenix, Glendale, Mesa, Scottsdale, Tempe and Chandler, provide universal public library service for the state's 4, 600,000 residents. Many of these library systems have automated public access catalogs and various forms of electronic access available to the public. Public access to the Internet is expanding. DLAPR has regular and direct communication with these libraries.

The Arizona Department of Education governs school development in Arizona, and the Arizona Legislature has become particularly interested in providing alternate methods of education. Arizona leads the nation with the number of licensed charter schools. In all there are 227 school districts and 1,409 school sites in Arizona. These include elementary, secondary, charter, Bureau of Indian Affairs, accommodation and special program schools. In 1997 the Arizona Learning Technology Partnership (ALTP) task force began a strategic plan for adoption of learning technology in K-12 education. The study phase is completed, and Phase 2 is currently involved with convening stakeholders and promoting models. The DLAPR Deputy Director serves on the ALTP Executive Board. The AMICO initiative would very appropriately fit into the educational models currently being developed by ALTP. There are currently several art- based magnet and charter schools in Arizona which may be particularly interested in working with the AMICO program. In Tucson, the Center of Creative Photography at the University of Arizona (an AMICO member) works closely with all third grade teachers at the Amphitheater School District. The Flagstaff Arts and Leadership Academy, a private charter school, is located on the campus of the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff. This arts school has a direct relationship with the Museum.

Arizona's three universities - University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University - share a common automated library catalog vendor, and the three institutions are closely connected. These catalogs offer auxiliary files and links which are available for public access. Northern Arizona University has pioneered, via satellite technology, an extensive distance education program with many of the state's community colleges and K-12 schools. The Rio Salado Community College is one of the largest distance learning vendors in the United States. The Estrella Mountain Community College has established a nationwide reputation in providing electronic- based educational models. In addition, the Western Governors University, a twelve state consortia which includes Arizona, is developing an ambitious online curricula via the Internet. An AMICO/DLAPR partnership with these existing programs will also be explored.

Staff for the AMICO project will also cooperate with various agencies and organizations which have similar goals, such as the Arizona Department of Education, the Arizona Commission on the Arts, the Arizona Library Association, the Arizona Education Association, State Advisory Council on Libraries, the Arizona Museum Association, the Arizona Educational Media Association, the Arizona Telecommunications and Information Council, the Arizona Distance Learning Association, and the Center for Collaborative Research on Learning Technologies at Arizona State University.

Establishing a dialogue with Arizona's art and Native American museums will also be a focus of the Arizona project. The AMICO staff will seek to work with the libraries and education departments of such museums as the Phoenix Art Museum, the Tucson Museum of Art, the Scottsdale Center for the Arts, the Sun Cities Art Museum, the Mesa Southwest Museum, the Heard Museum, the Arizona State Museum, the Center for Creative Photography and the other art museums located on the campuses of Arizona's three universities. The Heard Museum is currently involved in digitalization of Native American photographs, and this and other museums will be encouraged to become involved in AMICO activities.

Appendix E.    Profile of the 1998 AMICO library

Appendix F.    Major terms of draft license to Universities

NOTE: The full text of this framework document is on the web site at The full legal text is being drafted and will be provided to testbed licensees in April. This summary was prepared to highlight the important and unique terms. The general to be of a license to K-12 and public libraries will, no doubt, be similar though different users and uses will be identified which are important to those communities.

This document describes a licensing framework for a product based on The AMICO Library, for university educational use, which is intended to be acceptable to both universities and museums. It identifies the terms of a non-exclusive license, outlines permitted uses, defines licensed users, establishes modes of distribution and access, states security and reporting requirements, and assures licensees of continuity of access. Other licenses governing users, uses and terms not covered by this license may be offered by AMICO.

1.   Purpose and Goals

This agreement provides universities with licensed access to a product consisting of multimedia digital documentation of works from museum collections, for defined educational uses. Licensees are permitted to distribute the licensed content over a secure network and provide secure access on free-standing institutionally-owned computers in order to make it available to members of the University community.

2.   Parties

For the purposes of this license, the University is defined as users with defined relationships to the institution as a whole, as declared to a third-party. The license is not limited to one or more sites.

3.   Grant of license

AMICO grants the University a non-exclusive license to reproduce, perform, and display the licensed works under secure conditions and within the limits of the agreement

    - Only users as defined may have access
    - Only educational uses as defined are permitted
    - This license is non-transferable

4.   License period

The License is granted for one academic year, in order to accommodate course and network preparation requirements.

5.   Continuity of access

Recognizing the dependence that develops when courses are build around particular resources, this clause guarantees the University continued access to the licensed product in the event of budgetary crisis. It also acknowledges that special circumstances may require the museums to withdraw certain items from the distributed product during the term of the license.

6.   Failure of the Consortium

AMICO will place its full Library in escrow. Access to licensed products derived from that Library will be guaranteed by the escrow agent for the term of the license. Further, each AMICO member specifically guarantees licensees continued access to the digital works it supplied to AMICO in the event of the failure of the consortium, for the term granted in existing licenses at the time of failure. The AMICO member museums individually and collectively ensure archival access to the original works and documentation provided to AMICO, just as they already do in fulfillment of their missions as guardians of their collections.

7.   Termination

    - No provision is made for University withdrawal from this agreement during its term.
    - AMICO can terminate this license upon breach by the University, including failure to report known violations or to take action against infringements. The license will not be terminated for breaches by individuals as long as the University is enforcing the terms of the license and acts against violators.
    - Should a University fail to renew its license, any Licensed materials must be removed from any institutionally-owned computers.

8.   Users

The licensing university is responsible both for the definition and enumeration of the users comprising its community and should at any time be able to validate the standing of any individual as a member of that community. The 'university community' commonly includes:

    - Regular and adjunct faculty
    - Permanent and temporary staff
    - Full and part-time students
    - Affiliates whose status would make the eligible for a university identification card
    - Visiting faculty
    - Researchers whose status would make them eligible for a university identification card

The following types of users are specifically excluded from gaining access to the product under this license:

    - Individuals whose affiliation with the University is based on paying for the use of resources, such as the library, or network, rather than for courses
    - Alumni
    - Members of loosely affiliated groups renting facilities and services from the University
    - Members of the family of licensed users

9.   Uses

Uses permitted under this license include all uses permitted under fair use by the copyright law. Uses disallowed under this license may be licensed directly from the rights holders.

9.1.   Allowed uses

Licensed users may view, download, print, copy, perform, display and compile digital works from the licensed product within defined educational contexts and purposes, including:

    - Classroom uses, including display
    - Research uses, including manipulation as an aid to study and analysis
    - Use in student assignments, including the making of derivatives as assignments
    - Public exhibition and display, including incorporation within interpretive labels and/or installations, in an academic gallery or within a museum environment - Public display, by licensed users, in the context of professional activities, such as at a scholarly conference
    - Maintenance of licensed works even beyond the term of the institutional license, within a student or faculty portfolio, and its off-line, non-public, presentation or display as part of that portfolio in disciplines in which this is a normal requirement of academic practice and expected in the job market
    - Incorporation of entire works within a dissertation, and the making of personal and library deposit copies of that dissertation with these works in them works even beyond the term of the institutional license

9.2.   Allowed modifications to works

Modification of format and alteration of intellectual and/or visual content of works from the licensed product is permitted for educational purposes within concrete limits as defined below:

    - Copies, such as prints, photographs, or digital copies, may be created for licensed uses, but may not be retained by anyone beyond the term of the license except in the limited context of student assignments and portfolios
    - The educational benefits of manipulation and alteration are recognized by this license and constrained only within the bounds of the academic tradition of proper citation and the moral rights of creators. Quotation, critique and alteration of texts and manipulation or alteration of images are permitted, if the use takes place within an educational context and purpose and the moral rights of artists and authors are respected. The results of such exercises should include explicit identification of what changes have been made to images and accompanying documentation and include citations and/or direct links to the unmodified copy.

9.3.   Specifically disallowed uses:

The following uses are specifically disallowed under this license and separate permissions must be sought for each such use:

    - Redistribution, including re-transmission and/or public display of the product or copies created from it, in other than the educational contexts specified and/or accessible to users
    - Commercial use, including charging fees for any event or venue which includes licensed content
    - Publication in any medium or format is not permitted
    - University fund-raising, promotion, marketing and other public relations using licensed content
    - Downloading for storage in any medium or format beyond the term of the license
    - Modification of work as stored in the distributed first copy of the product. An unmodified copy must at all times be provided for reference.
    - Re-posting of manipulated images to the campus servers, except to support access requirements within defined and limited curricular requirements, - Display in any medium or format without the specified credit line
    except during formal examinations when such a credit line would interfere with an educational measure, - Local mounting without the defined minimum textual data associated with the work immediately accessible

10.   Authorized Access by Unlicensed Users

    - Unlicensed users with access to publicly available university library services on the site of the University can have read-only access to AMICO licensed products. Means for downloading and printing may not be provided to such users
    - Unlicensed users with remote access to publicly available library catalogues in which tombstone data and thumbnail images from AMICO products mounted on licensed campus networks are incorporated may have access to this limited cataloging data.

11.   Format of the Product

AMICO products will be delivered in standard technical formats, published by AMICO prior to the beginning of each licensing year.

12.   Distribution

AMICO products will be made available through the existing distributors both for local delivery on the campus network of the Licensee and via remote access. The University may make all or part of the product available on its campus network or local systems.

13.   Points of Access

Licensed users may have access from:

    - Classrooms
    - Student dormitories
    - Campus research facilities
    - Libraries
    - Homes
    - Remote facilities of the University

14.   Acknowledgment

    - Documentation supplied with the work in the AMICO product must always be made available
    - Licensees agree that credit lines will appear with all works except in acknowledged situations, such as testing, where this interferes with curricular goals.

15.   Requirements for security and monitoring

    - The University is responsible for exercising control over access, including local networked access, and for documenting its security practices
    - User authentication should be same as that used for licensed software and/or access to funds. Kerberos-like controls considered preferable at this time
    - Licensees must have policies and procedures for control and use of licensed products and must make the terms of licenses known to all users. Policies must include severe sanctions for willful violations by any licensed user including appropriate disciplinary processes for faculty, staff or students

16.   Reporting requirements

    - Universities must report all known and suspected infringements of the license as soon as they are made known to university officials, together with the course of action which the University proposes to pursue with respect to known or suspected infringers. Updates should be filed on a timely basis as each case develops. Failure to report or act against violators is cause for termination of this license
    - Universities must report classroom assigned or reserve room assigned works annually. If data is known, universities are requested to report total annual campus hits
    - Universities conducting studies of usage are asked to share results with AMICO

17.   Fees

Licensees will pay an annual license fee, calculated on a simple per capita basis, independent of amount of use.

18.   Warranties and Indemnification

    - AMICO warrants that works it provides under this license do not require further rights clearance for any use authorized under this license. Other products and licenses may be offered which include works, especially by living artists, where rights are partially encumbered
    - AMICO indemnifies the Licensee against any infringement that falls within the bounds of the uses permitted under this license
    - Licensees assure AMICO that they will seek rights for uses not specified in this agreement.
    - Licensees Universities assure AMICO that they will actively enforce this agreement, and take necessary action against infringers
    - The University must immediately report known use violations and act against violators within framework of institutional policy

Appendix G.   AMICO Presentations since March 1997

Press Conference for non-profits after AMICO organizational meeting, Los Angeles, March '97
Information session at Coalition for Networked Information, April '97
Information Session and Project Briefing at Coalition for Networked Information, October '97
Session at Museum Computer Network Annual Conference, Oct '97
Session at Association of Museum Directors conference January 1998
Session at College Art Association meeting February 1998
Session at Visual Resources Association Meeting March 1998
Session at Art Libraries Association meeting, March 1998

Several published reports have already appeared in the professional literature.

Appendix H.   University Testbed - Framework & Participants

University Testbed Project Participants 1998/1999 Academic Year

In October 1997, AMICO announced an opportunity for selected universities to engage in research with a pre-release version of The AMICO Library during the 1998-99 academic year. Universities were invited to respond to a Call-for-Participation which listed the research objectives of AMICO. Individual institutions and consortia representing more than 100 universities responded. The following institutional research proposals were selected to participate:

    Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA
    California State Universities, CA, USA
      San Jose State, San Jose, CA
      Long Beach, Long Beach, CA
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA
    Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    Harvard University, Boston, MA , USA
    Herron School of Art, Indianapolis, IN, USA and
    Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    University of Illinois,
      University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA
      University of Illinois, Chicago Circle, Chicago, IL, USA
    University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
    University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
      University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario
      University of Toronto at Scarborough, Scarborough,Ontario
    Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA
    Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, USA
    Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA

In addition to conducting the specific research projects proposed in their applications to join the testbed, university testbed participants will be collaborating with AMICO member museums to evaluate and refine delivery systems and license terms, establish viable fee structures, assess usage and support needs of the university community. They are also engaged in defining ways to contribute to the growth of The AMICO Library.

Appendix I.   Evaluation Framework

    The evaluation of the TIIAP project will consist of an internally administered attitudes and issues analysis and an externally administered impact analysis
    - The attitudes and issues analysis (internal evaluation) will involve obtaining a pre-project baseline from a broad cross section of public librarians and K-12 educators as a control group, followed by a pre-project baseline from actual project participants, and a post-project assessment from all participants to evaluate their experience
    - The impact analysis (external evaluation) will monitor groups of users in different settings in the final year of the project. Its purpose will be to determine how the availability of the Library impacts on both teaching in formal school settings and learning at home and in the library using library resources

Attitudes and Issues Analysis

All the (500 or more) attendees at the public ˝promotional" meetings hosted by the Arizona DLAPR will be given a brief survey to assess their attitudes towards Internet based resources, digital art resources, access to technology and the potential impact of technology on education and to discover the extent to which they understand the how and why of Internet-based resource delivery prior to the day of briefings. Staff of the 50 sites selected to participate in the project will be administered the same questions, mixed into the questions of a more lengthy survey which will additionally probe their expectations of the project, anticipation of barriers and benefits, and assumptions about users and uses. This survey will be administered prior to the first project meeting. Just before the end of the project, a final survey will be administered to all participants, which will include the baseline questions and many additional questions about their actual experiences and their beliefs about the impact of the project both on their attitudes and expectations and concretely on those who used the resources. These three surveys will be analyzed by the DLAPR staff of the project, the AMICO staff of the project and the AMICO User and Uses Committee to shape the project and recommend future action.

Impact Analysis

University researchers external to the project will be invited to conduct more detailed research on impacts on specific groups of users. Staff of AMICO member museums education departments experienced in evaluation of educational programs who serve on the AMICO User and Uses Committee will draft a call for research on the impacts of The AMICO Library on users in the first six months of the project. This call, modeled on the call for participation in the University Testbed Project of AMICO in 1998-99, will go out to universities nationwide, but especially to those in Arizona and surrounding states, inviting proposals for studies of the uses of The AMICO Library in the sites which have access within Arizona. The focus of the call will be on studies of specific use encounters with the Library (actual users queries and learning objectives in concrete settings) and on the curriculum development process and the way in which the Library contributed to individual teachers, schools and district level planning. Studies will also focus on the institutional impact on public libraries and schools which had access to the Library. Selected proposers will be invited to conduct studies and report results at AMICO User Conferences.

Appendix J.   Personnel

All personnel dedicated to the project at the Arizona Department of Libraries, Archives and Public Records will be appointed after the project begins.

AMICO is currently planning to hire staff beginning in July of 1998, regardless of the funding of this project. The first recruitment will be for the position of Executive Director, followed by the positions of Member Services Coordinator (not in this proposal) and Client Services Coordinator (referenced here). In the winter of 1998 the positions of Database Administrator and Webmaster (also referenced here) will be recruited.

Personnel referred to in this proposal (all services contributed in the proposal) who are already in the employ of AMICO are: Michael Shapiro, General Counsel, AMICO David Bearman, President, Archives & Museum Informatics, Management Consultant to AMICO Jennifer Trant, Partner and Principal Consultant, Archives & Museum Informatics, Management Consultants to AMICO

Basic biographical details:
Michael Shapiro Esq., previously General Counsel, National Endowment for the Humanities, Director of the Graduate Program in Museum Education, George Washington University, Director of the Delaware State Museum

David Bearman, previously Deputy Director, Office of Information Resources Management, Smithsonian Institution, Director, National Information Systems Task Force, Society of American Archivists, Director SSHBMB, American Academy of Arts & Sciences/American Philosophical Society

Jennifer Trant, previously Project Director, Museum Educational Site Licensing Project, strategic planner, Arts and Humanities Data Service (UK), Director, Arts Information Management (Canada), Manager, Imaging Initiative, Getty Art History Information Program

Appendix K

Project Schedule
Deliverables in italics

(Target Date)  
1 (Oct 98) AMICO & Arizona DLAPR senior staff define initial model for delivery, issue job announcements, brief State employees; recruit AZ Project Director, involvement of State Department of Education, museums in Arizona to join AMICO, involvement of other cultural agencies; draft shared evaluation objectives
2 Interview AZ Project Director/Appoint; order equipment, secure space, order telecommunications
3 AZ Project Director involved in recruitment of AZ Development Officer; DLAPR staff assignments; establish shared evaluation objectives.
4 (Jan 99) Hire development officer conduct planning meetings with AMICO Client Services Coordinator; Develop public announcements/ brochures; draft & issue RFP for interface contractor; draft attitutdes and issues survey
5 Receive AMICO data, mount data on network server; Publish Evaluation Models; Select interface contractor
6 Hold focus group meetings; announce opportunity to participate
7 (April 99) Define interface specification; register attendees for promotional meetings
8 Develop initial interfaces; hold promotion meetings around the state to explain project; open recruitment of participants. Publish Model Specifications
9 Recruit/select participants; hold Project Meeting for all participants
10 (July 99) Begin installation training visits to participants (by end of month 11, all school sites have been visited and are installed); select participants and hold meetings of license drafting groups.
11 Recruit second development officer. Publish Model Licenses
12 Select second development officer; Begin school site visits
13 (Oct 99) Hire second development officer; Install public libraries; Issue call for External Evaluation projects
13-24 Develop individual and collaborative programs, work with local agencies to create synergies, conduct training sessions. Publish Model State-wide Delivery Services
16 Evaluate proposals for external evaluations, select projects
18 Commence External evaluation projects
29-30 Work with external evaluators. Transition to AMICO Library under regular subscription terms to project participants and other institutions in State.
Publish Final Reports AMICO Evaluation and Development Of Models

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